BIND 9.9.0

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March 1st, 2012

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BIND 9.9.0 Description

BIND 9.9.0 is a useful and handy tool which consists of a server (or `daemon') called `named' and a resolver library. A name server is a network service that enables clients to name resources or objects and share this information with other objects in the network. 

BIND 8.4.5 is the latest version of ISC BIND 8; it is a maintenance release to BIND 8.4.0, which provides IPv6 transport support for named, named-xfer and ndc. It also includes the BIND 8.4.2 release which includes a security fix which prevents negative answers being cached from the wrong source. (also released as BIND 8.3.7). 

Major Features:
  1. A Domain Name System server (named)
  2. A Domain Name System resolver library
  3. Tools for verifying the proper operation of the DNS server
  • New Features:
    • The new "inline-signing" option, in combination with the "auto-dnssec" option that was introduced in BIND 9.7, allows named to sign zones completely transparently.  Previously automatic zone signing only worked on master zones that were configured to be dynamic; now, it works on any master or slave zone. In a master zone with inline signing, the zone is loaded from disk as usual, and a second copy of the zone is created to hold the signed version.  The original zone file is not touched; all comments remain intact.  When you edit the zone file and reload, named detects the incremental changes that have been made to the raw version of the zone, and applies those changes to the signed version, adding signatures as needed. A slave zone with inline signing works similarly, except that instead of loading the zone from disk and then signing it, the slave transfers the zone from a master server and then signs it.  This enables "bump in the wire" signing: a dedicated signing server acting as an intermediary between a hidden master server (which provides the raw zone data) and a set of publicly accessible slave servers (which only serve the signed data). [RT #26224/23657] 
    • NXDOMAIN redirection is now possible. This enables a resolver to respond to a client with locally-configured information when a query would otherwise have gotten an answer of "no such domain". This allows a recursive nameserver to provide alternate suggestions for misspelled domain names.  Note that names that are in DNSSEC-signed domains are exempted from this when validation is in use. [RT #23146]
    • "rndc flushtree " command removes the specified name and all names under it from the cache. [RT #19970]
    • "rndc sync" command dumps pending changes in a dynamic zone to disk without a freeze/thaw cycle. "rndc sync -clean" removes the journal file after syncing. "rndc freeze" no longer removes journal files. [RT #22473] 
    • The new "rndc signing" command provides greater visibility and control of the automatic DNSSEC signing process.  Options to this new command include "-list " which will show the current state of signing operations overall or per specified zone. [RT #23729]
    • "auto-dnssec" zones can now have NSEC3 parameters set prior to signing. [RT #23684]
    • Improves the startup time for an authoritative server with a large number of zones by making the zone task table of variable size rather than fixed size.  This means that authoritative servers with many zones will be serving that zone data much sooner. [RT #24406]
    • Improves initial start-up and server reload time by increasing the default size of the hash table the configuration parser uses to keep track of loaded zones and allowing it to grow dynamically to better handle systems with large numbers of zones.  [RT #26523] 
    • Improves scalability by using multiple threads to listen for and process queries. Previously named only listened for queries on one thread regardless of the number of overall threads used. [RT #22992] 
    • Improves startup and reconfiguration time by allowing zones to load in multiple threads.  [RT #25333] 
    • The "also-notify" option now takes the same syntax as "masters", thus it can use named master lists and TSIG keys. [RT #23508]
    • The "dnssec-signzone -D" option causes dnssec-signzone to write DNSSEC data to a separate output file. This allows you to put "$INCLUDE" into the zonefile for, run "dnssec-signzone -SD", and the result is a fully signed zone which did *not* overwrite your original zone file. Running the same command again will incrementally re-sign the zone, replacing only those signatures that need updating, rather than signing the entire zone from scratch. [RT #22896]
    • "dnssec-signzone -R" forces removal of signatures that are not expired but were created by a key which no longer exists. [RT #22471]
    • "dnssec-signzone -X" option allows signatures on DNSKEY records to have a different expiration date from other signatures.  This makes it more convenient to keep your KSK on a separate system, and resign the zone with it less frequently. [RT #22141]
    • "-L" option to dnssec-keygen, dnssec-settime, and dnssec-keyfromlabel sets the default TTL for the key when it is converted into a DNSKEY RR. [RT #23304]
    • "dnssec-dsfromkey -f -" allows for reading keys from standard input, making it easier to convert DNSKEY records to DS.  Example usage:  "dig +noall +answer dnskey | dnssec-dsfromkey -f -" [RT #20662]
    • The 'serial-update-method' option allows dynamic zones to have their SOA serial number set to the current UNIX time if desired, rather than simply incrementing the serial number with each change to the zone. [RT #23849]
    • Per RFC 6303, RFC 1918 reverse zones are now part of the built-in list of empty zones. [RT #24990]
    • Added support for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) resource records [RT #23386]
    • Client requests using TSIG now log the name of the TSIG key used. [RT #23619]
    • Add a 'named -U' option to set the number of UDP listener threads per interface. [RT #26485]
    • dnssec-signzone: "-f -" prints to stdout; "-O full" option prints in single-line-per-record format.  [RT #20287]
    • Add a configuration switch "dnssec-lookaside 'no'" to set explicitly the current default behavior.  [RT #24858]
    • 'rndc querylog' can now be given an on/off parameter instead of only being used as a toggle. [RT #18351]
    • When the server logs messages about the state of recursive client processing, it will include the name the client had requested in the log messages, to make it easier to identify problems when they occur. Such log messages will now look similar to this one: 03-Nov-2011 14:14:44.981 client ( send 
    • Several RPZ feature improvements have been made.  Highlights are a new "rpz" logging channel and RPZ CNAME RDATA can now include wildcards.  [RT #25172]
    • Enables DLZ modules to retrieve client information so that responses can be changed depending on the source address of the query.  For more information see contrib/dlz/example/README.  (Note that this change will be of limited interest to most BIND users - it is intended for developers who are working with DLZ) [RT #25768/26215]
  • Feature Changes:
    • Local copies of slave zones are now saved in raw format by default to improve startup performance.  The option 'masterfile-format text;' can be used to override the default if desired. [RT #25867] 
    • BIND 9.9 changes the default storage format for slave zone files from text to raw.  Because named's behavior when a slave server cannot read or parse a zone file is to move the offending file out of the way and retransfer the zone, slave servers that are updated from a pre-9.9.0 version of BIND and which have existing copies of slave zone data may wind up with extraneous copies of zone data stored, as the existing text-format zone file copies will be moved aside to filenames of the format db-###### and journal files to the format jn-######  (where # represents a hexadecimal digit.)  [RT #27058]
    • When replacing an NS RRset, BIND now restricts the TTL of the new NS RRset to no more than that of the NS RRset it replaces. [RT #27792] 
    • The improved scalability by using multiple threads to listen for and process queries introduced in prior 9.9 releases via RT #22992 does not work on Windows. This feature has now been disabled on Windows builds. [RT #27696]
    • Darwin 11 and later are now built threaded by default. 
    • RRset ordering now defaults to random. [RT #27174]
    • dig has been modified to produce more human readable and parsable DNSSEC data output. DNSKEY record comments are more verbose and no longer used in multiline mode only, multiline RRSIG records are now reformatted, multiline output mode for NSEC3PARAM records is now supported. New related options in dig are "+nocomments" to suppress DNSKEY comments, "+split=X" will break hex/base64 records into fields of width X, and "+nosplit" causes RDATA fields to not be split at all. [RT #22820] 
    • dig now defaults to using options "+adflag" and "+edns=0" which better reflect the behaviour of BIND and many other modern nameservers when recursing.   Additionally "+dnssec" will be automatically enabled when running "dig +trace". [RT #23497]
    • RFC 1918 empty zones will now be configured automatically.  Named will attempt to determine if an RFC 1918 zone already exists or is active and will not create an empty zone in that case.  In prior versions, these were switched on with the empty-zones-enable option.  [RT #27139] 
    • Extends the header of raw-format master files to include the serial number of the zone from which they were generated, if different (as in the case of inline-signing zones). This is needed by change #3252 to track changes between the unsigned and signed versions of the zone, which may have different serial numbers if zone files are updated when the server is offline.  Note that this change means that raw zonefiles generated by this version of  BIND are no longer compatble with prior versions.   To generate a backward-compatible raw zonefile using dnssec-signzone or named-compilezone, specify output format "raw=0" instead of simply "raw".  [RT #26587] 
    • Option request-ixfr can now be specified at zone level.  Using option ixfr-from-differences on a slave server no longer causes it to default to requesting AXFR-style transfers.  (This change was added as part of the implementation of inline-signing)   [RT #25156]
    • named-compilezone now longer emits "dump zone to " message when writing to stdout.  [RT #27109]
    • --enable-developer, a new composite argument to the configure script, enables a set of build options normally disabled but frequently selected in test or development builds, specifically: enable_fixed_rrset, with_atf, enable_filter_aaaa, enable_rpz_nsip, enable_rpz_nsdname, and with_dlz_filesystem (and on Linux and Darwin, also enable_exportlib) [RT #27103] 
    • Support for readline has been added to nslookup and nsupdate - see ./configure for options at build time.  In addition, the syntax of nslookup has been streamlined by making "update" and "prereq" optional [RT #24659] 
    • The logging level for DNSSEC validation failures due to expired or not-yet-valid RRSIGs has been increased to log level "info" to make it easier to diagnose these problems.  Examples of the new log messages are given below:
    • 03-Nov-2011 22:40:55.335 validating @0x7fccc401e5a0: A: verify failed due to bad signature (keyid=19442): RRSIG has expired 
    • 03-Nov-2011 22:41:31.335 validating @0x12b5d80: A: verify failed due to bad signature (keyid=19442): RRSIG validity period has not begun 
    • [RT #21796] 
    • When logging messages about the state of  recursive client processing, named now includes in its log entries the name the client requested to make troubleshooting easier. [RT #25944]
    • This change can reduce the time when a server is unavailable during "rndc reconfig" for servers with large and complex configurations.  This is achieved by completing the parsing of the configuration files in entirety before entering the exclusive phase.  (Note that it does not reduce the total time spent in "rndc reconfig", and it has no measurable impact on server initial start-up times.) [RT  #21373]
  • Bug Fixes:
    • The managed key maintenance timer could fail to restart after 'rndc reconfig' resulting in managed keys not being properly added to managed-keys.bind [RT #27686]
    • The dlz_destroy() function wasn't correctly registered by the DLZ dlopen driver. [RT #28056]
    • Corrects an INSIST failure by addressing race conditions in the handling of rbtnode.deadlink. [RT #27738]
    • Raw zones with with more than 512 records in a RRset failed to load. [RT #27863]
    • SOA refresh queries could be treated as cancelled despite succeeding over the loopback interface. [RT #27782]
    • An error handling an out of memory condition could cause a stored rdataset to be freed twice using DNS64. [RT #27762]
    • Make sure automatic key maintenance is started when "rndc reconfig" is issued if "auto-dnssec maintain" is turned on. [RT #26805]
    • Stabilizes the BIND build in the Mac OS environment by addressing problems with mksymtbl and ensuring that it's using portable perl.  [RT #27653] 
    • Corrects a potential overflow problem in the computation of RRSIG expiration times. [RT #23311]
    • Error reporting has been improved for failures encountered when sending or receiving network packets.  In particular some memory allocation failures were being logged as "unexpected error" - these will now be reported accurately.  A new ISC_R_UNSET result code has also been added to cover those situations where there is no error code returned by the OS sockets implementation.  [RT #27336]
    • The maximum number of NSEC3 iterations for a DNSKEY RRset was not being properly computed.  [RT #26543]
    • RPZ implementation now conforms to version 3 of the specification.  [RT #27316]
    • Some query patterns could cause responses not to be returned in cyclic order though "rrset-order cyclic" was set.  [RT #27170/27185]
    • dnssec-signzone -t now records timestamps just before and just after signing, improving the accuracy of signing statistics. [RT #16030]
    • If allow-new-zones was set to yes and ACLs were given names, issuing "rndc reconfig" could cause named to crash. [RT #22739]
    • When a validating resolver received a NODATA response for DNSKEY, it was not caching the NODATA. Fixed and test added. [RT #22908]
    • Using Response Policy Zone (RPZ) with DNAME records and querying the subdomain of that label could cause named to crash; named now logs that DNAME is not supported. [RT #24766]
    • If "ixfr-from-differences" is set to no and a dynamic zone's serial number has been changed, "rndc thaw" will now remove the zone's journal file. [RT #24687]
    • RT #23136 (CHANGES #3114) fixed a problem where named would delete old signatures even when the private key wasn't available to re-sign the zone, resulting in a zone with missing signatures. However, the initial fix was found to be incomplete particularly when multiple algorithms may have been used. [RT #24577]
    • named would log warnings that empty zones may fail to transfer to slaves due to serial number 0. These spurious errors have now been silenced. [RT #25079]
    • Corrected memory leaks and out of order operations that could cause named to crash during a normal shutdown. [RT #25210]
    • dns_db_rpz_findips() could fail to set the database version correctly, causing an assertion failure. [RT #26180]
    • resolver.c:validated() was not thread-safe. [RT #26478]
    • Correct a situation in rbtdb.c: where failure to remove a node from the deadnodes list prior to adding a reference to it could lead to a possible assertion failure. [RT #23219] 
    • Canceling the oldest query due to recursive-client overload could trigger an assertion failure. [RT #26463]
    • NOEDNS caching on timeout was too agressive.  [RT #26416]
    • Clarify the error message reported when the config parser cannot open a file.  [RT #22263]
    • A query structure could be used after being freed. [RT #22208]
    • zone.c:zone_refreshkeys() could fail to detach references correctly when errors occurred, causing a hang on shutdown. [RT #26372]
    • Sets isc_socket_ipv6only() on the IPv6 control channels.  This addresses IPv6 socket binding problems that can occur in some configurations when bindv6only=1 is set globally.   [RT #22249] 
    • named now reports a syntax error when a TXT record longer than 255 characters is configured.  [RT #26956]
    • Master zones using inline-signing can now be updated when the server is offline without losing sychronization between signed and un-signed zones.  This has been achieved via change #3242 which extends the raw-format master file header to include the serial number of the zone from which the signed zone was generated.  [RT #26676]
    • In 9.9, the "also-notify" option uses the same syntax as "masters" allowing it to make use of master lists and TSIG keys.  This release corrects a bug in the alpha and beta releases of 9.9 that would prevent named from starting if an empty "also-notify" list was used. [RT #27087]
    • Suppresses spurious errors that could be generated when freezing and thawing a dynamic zone with uncommitted updates and ixfr-from-differences set.  named no longer reports 'unchanged serials' unless there were other changes found when thawing the zone.  [RT #26845] 
    • Addresses race conditions in the resolver code that can cause named to abort.   [RT #26889] 
    • Prevents DNSKEY state change events from being missed by ensuring that the timestamps used to determine which keys are in use are set appropriately.  [RT #26874] 
    • When processing a list of keys, named now consistently compares them with the same timestamp. [RT #26883] 
    • Fixes a bug that could cause named to crash while loading a zone with invalid DNSKEY records.  [RT #26913]
    • Prevents  dig -6 +trace from terminating with an error when encountering a root nameserver without an AAAA record. RT #26906] 
    • An unusual corner-case buffer handling issue in zone transfers is corrected.  The symptom was that zones that contain record types that do not compress when converted to wire format could fail to transfer.  [RT #26796] 
    • Addresses a selection of minor resource leaks that were identified via code checking tools but which have not been reported from any production environments.  [RT #26624] 
    • The performance enhancement to add multiple listener threads could cause spurious "setsockopt(517, IPV6_V6ONLY) failed" messages to be emitted. These messages are now suppressed. [RT #26507] 
    • rndc argument parsing has been improved to prevent unexpected results including named crashes if "rndc signing" is used with incorrect or missing arguments.  [RT #26684] 
    • Prevents intermittent coredumps on shutdown due to referencing fetch context after it's been freed.  [RT #26720] 
    • Servers that received negative responses from a forwarder were failing to cache the answers correctly, resulting in multiple queries for the same non-existent name being sent to the forwarders instead of answers being provided to clients from cache (until TTL expiry).   [RT #25380] 
    • Fixes a problem whereby "rndc dumpdb" could cause an assertion failure and abort by attempting to print an empty rdataset.  [RT #25452] 
    • Corrects a problem validating root DS responses. [RT #25726] 
    • Fixes a bug in zone.c where failure to delete signatures could lead to an assertion failure and subsequent abort.  [RT #25880] 
    • Master servers that had previously been marked as unreachable because of failed zone transfer attempts will now be removed from the "unreachable" list (i.e. considered reachable again) if the slave receives a NOTIFY message from them. [RT #25960] 
    • The management of named's recursive client lists has been reworked to reduce performance bottlenecks due to lock contention in this area (which particularly impacted busy servers with large numbers of threads).  [RT #26044] 
    • Fixes a problem with the computation of tags for revoked keys.  [RT #26186] 
    • named now correctly validates DNSSEC positive wildcard responses from NSEC3 signed zones. [RT #26200] 
    • Some query patterns could cause responses not to be returned in cyclic order though "rrset-order cyclic" was set.  [RT #27170/27185]
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